Concrete ceilings have one undeniable advantage.They are strong.If the house is a multi-storey ceilings it made of reinforced concrete slabs.
These boards are doing in the factory with pre-tensioned reinforcement.They are lightweight and durable.At this end of his dignity.
Next tenants will have to fight with reinforced concrete for a sleek, aesthetic, soundproof potolok.Krome joints between ceiling panels have good acoustic permeability and thermal conductivity.
With regard to the thermal conductivity in the high-rise building is the problem of the upper floors.But no options for sound transmission.
hear everything, even the fact that you do not want to listen.The problem of thermal insulation concrete ceilings acute in individual housing, whether monolithic or ceiling of reinforced concrete slabs.
Construction industry produces large amounts of heat-insulating materials (sm.Teploizolyatsiya ceiling - materials and methods).They are different
insulation materials are divided into:
- artificial polymer
to inorganic materials include:
- expanded clay insulation
- expanded perlite
- siopor and sioterm
- cellular concrete
- glass honeycomb
Warming concrete ceilings mineral wool is most common.
Depending on the raw material from which it is made, the mineral wool is classified in the manufacture of:
- natural stone materials
- blast-furnace slag
When buying a heater should pay attention to:
- Heat resistance (not lit any)
- hygroscopicity (do not absorb any moisture)
- Thermal conductivity (as conducts heat)
mineral wool for different needs of the industry produce heaters of various shapes andperformance.
make mineral wool From:
- sandwich panels
These products are made of different thickness.
Mineral wool is used for insulation:
- roof and (undercovering space)
- attic and intermediate floors
- interior and exterior walls
- concrete floors
Keramzit good insulation, porous, lightweight.Expanded clay is obtained by firing a high temperature fusible clay. The result is a thermo insulation with good performance.
From the expanded clay can be made lightweight, durable and warm concrete.Expanded clay can be easily insulate any ceiling (ceiling sm.Uteplenie haydite do yourself).
To do this, fill expanded clay and arrange on it a cement screed with a metal setkoy.Uteplenie mineral wool and expanded clay can be done by hand, in contrast to polyurethane foam insulation.
should take into account that all insulation is outside, not inside.
Thermal insulation with polyurethane foam
Unlike previous heaters to make polyurethane foam insulation concrete ceiling nevozmozhno.Dlya such work need special equipment for mixing the two components of polyurethane foam.
During the reaction, polyurethane foams and takes a finely porous structure.With this structure, it has good heat-engineering parameters.
during polyurethane foam fills the gap.In addition, it is well bonded to almost all surfaces.Such work on warming the ceiling can be done only by specialized firms.
Good undeservedly forgotten by all insulation.Another name opilkobetona-arbolit. have opilkobetona measure the thermal conductivity of 0,07-0,17 W / (m · K).
This gives him the right to compete with modern thermal insulation materials.And the cost of all it leaves behind.
If the manufacture opilkobetona add more cement, can achieve tensile strength from 50 to 100 kg \ sm.kv..From these blocks erected low-rise houses.Opilkobetona do not burn and durability is not inferior wood.
opilkobetona has properties:
- not affected by microbes, mold;
- good thermal insulator;
- good sound insulator;
- easily sawn saws;
- well plastered plastering different compositions;
- Price was not great.
main advantage: in comparison with the prices of modern insulation materials opilkobeton worth a penny.
amount of material in the 200l concrete kg
density, kg / m3
Composition in volume fractions
0: 10:0: 20
20: 40: 20: 160
20: 24: 24: 100
20: 20: 22: 80
- Mark arbolita M5 and M10 - for insulation;
- Mark arbolita M15 and M25 - for the construction of low-rise buildings
Arbolit not hard and is not as expensive to cook at home with their rukami.Horoshy opilkobeton without mixing and compacting in forms not cook.
need for good mixing cement mixer.Sawdust for arbolita should be taken by those who were in the open air for several months.
opilkobetona to bark and bark screenings are not suitable.Before preparing necessary filings to sift arbolita.If it is possible to add a certain amount of wood chips (15%), it is necessary to use this opportunity.
to wood inside concrete or moldy and rotten to the solution was added various chemicals:
- Calcium chloride
- Liquid glass
should take into account the fact that opilkobeton long drying and desiccation can changeform.For complete drying opilkobetona need to allow time for at least two months.
sawdust sawmill waste are woodworking enterprises.On disposal of these wastes businesses spend a lot of money.
addition, environmentalists from time to time carry out a plan for fines for violation of environmental norms enterprises.Therefore, to get the sawdust is not a problem.
How to install a chandelier quickly and easily
Once bought a chandelier, a problem arises how to set it?Or try it yourself?
If the ceiling has already been suspended from the chandelier, the problem is not specific.And if there is only a hole from which wires stick out, and there are no hooks, and there is nothing to catch?
As they say more to the point
How to drill concrete panels person does it for the first time?When you try to attach the chandelier to the concrete panels would be nice to know what it is made.
As seen in the photo, this panel has six holes.Here and there the need to get drill or a hammer.Between the holes are pre-tensioned reinforcement.
Drill fitting course possible, but desirable.Too much effort will have to make.Drill for concrete iron does not "take", we must bear this in mind.In addition to the reinforcement panel carries the main load.
as drills and the
Drilling panel must hammer or an electric drill having a switch for punch mode.Drills for the concrete use special carbide-tipped.
to drill a hole to be drilled from a smaller to a larger aperture opening.Just punch a large hole is possible, but difficult.
If there is a question of fixing the ceiling chandeliers buy a set of drills is not necessary.You can buy one, two drills in roznitsu.Gde take a hammer or a drill?
If not drill and punch can punch a hole in the panel using the drill and hammer.After the drill is designed to shock the rotational motion.
hammer blows on the drill while rotating it, you can punch a hole in the monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete panels.
set of drills for concrete
To determine the phase or zero need a screwdriver indicator.If you touch a bulb lights up phase and zero, respectively, no.
multimeter to buy expensive chandelier suspension does not make sense. To light lit up on the display need to touch a screwdriver to a metal button.
cost a small screwdriver.It is sold in almost all hardware stores.
Tip: To phase touch hands in no case be
Hangers and hooks
mount chandelier from the ceiling concrete is best done on hooks.Hooks are sold in DIY stores ready. When mounting this hook, drill a hole of such diameter that it could go sliding shoulders.
Once shoulders wound into the hole in the panel, hook the lock nut.If the hook is not ready, do yourself a hook of the two nails.
One hook is bent in the form of the letter S. In other nail plant in the hole and hang it on the S-hook.And chandeliers hang on a homemade hook!
As a result, mounting to concrete ceiling chandelier consists of two nails and ingenuity.If the ceiling of reinforced concrete, without dowels not do.
In this case, drill a hole for the dowel, hammered it into the concrete floor, and it screwed hook.Naturally, the hook must be threaded.
There are chandeliers, which are attached to the ceiling on the mounting plate.Strap fastened to the ceiling with two screws already directly to her chandelier.In order to accurately attach the bar it is necessary to attach to the ceiling and mark with a pencil the place of drilling dowel holes.
What options are
options for hanging chandeliers can be two.In the hole, where sticking fixture must be the two wires or three wires.In the first embodiment, there is no problem.
In this case, it is calculated that the entire fixture is lit, no matter how many lights there were not.If sticking out of the hole three wires, so no indicator screwdriver is necessary.
Of the three wires must be phase two and one zero.This scheme is designed for lamps, which can include parts.For example, 2 + 3 bulbs or 3 +3 light bulbs, or the other option.
order to determine where the phase is needed to attach the indicator wire screwdriver.If the phase conductor means lamp in the indicator Screwdriver burn.
for such a scheme is needed series switch.
most interesting situation when the opening of the two wires sticking out, and the three wires in the chandelier.In this case, connect the chandelier on the 2 + 3 will fail.
What and who is to blame?
famous dictum of Lenin can be very useful.In this case, you can try to push through a new three-conductor wire.To do this, the old wire tie new, three-wire and pull it through the hole in the panel.If the case goes
tight or does not go, call elektrika.Esli still three-conductor wire is dragged from the box to the site of an adjustable mounting chandeliers, proceed to connect the chandelier.
- phase conductors should pass through the switch.This is to ensure that when replacing light bulbs "as if something happens."In the sense to avoid the stress.
- When buying a screwdriver indicator should be in place to check the serviceability of
- Before connecting chandeliers desirable to work out in the definition phase and zero.To do this, you need to "poke into all sockets" and check where and where phase zero.
chandeliers assembly must be done according to the manufacturer's instructions.The central suspension has introduced two or three wires, and they are connected to the terminal block.
In order to do not mess up, it must be remembered that the neutral wire are connected to the two groups, respectively bulbs scheme. As a rule, the manufacturer in the data sheet suggests a connection example chandeliers.
- Before you hang a chandelier on the ceiling it is necessary to connect it on a temporary basis, to ensure that no errors;
- chandelier sure to connect the wires is possible only after a power failure all the apartment or house!
for a beautiful and lasting connections without "twists" industry produces terminal blocks.They come in various designs.
This shoe components Chandeliers
These pads most popular.If necessary, you can take three or four of them, just sawed off the required amount.Thing is small, but it helps a lot to organize the work and ensure a firm connection.
Tips: Remember that connect copper to copper and aluminum to aluminum
humanitarian workers in five occupations Rozhkova chandelier of 10 wires baffled.However, nothing in this complex circuit is not.
In reality, you need to collect five blue wire (zero) in a single unit, two red wires into one unit and three brown in a single node.As can be seen from the circuit in the series switch comes one phase wire, and two out.
In real life, no one to switch the two wires of a single two-wire and pulls.There's a three-conductor wire, and the whole layout is done in the junction box.
To connect the chandelier is not necessary to finish vocational school.It is enough to "dig" on the Internet.Photo, video, instructions to act for installing chandeliers always there.
common labeling wires
If the house is old no labeling is not there, and because there is a need to label the wires.To do this, define the indicator using a screwdriver, and where the phase where the zero.
Sometimes beginners electricians question arises as to paint the wires according to the destination?Nothing paint is not necessary.
Just for phase conductor pulls a piece of tape, which does not remove even after connecting the chandelier.
If the house is new:
- phase is marked in red, brown or black
- Neutral conductor marked in blue
- Grounding indicated in yellow, green or yellow-green.
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