Overlapping wooden ceiling inner lining is a support structure that is responsible for the strength of the ceiling (floor) between floors and are based on the load-bearing walls of the structure.Ceilings of this material is the most durable, convenient for installation, environmentally friendly, which is important for human health.
ceiling wooden beams connect horizontal structure, evenly distributing the load on the wall.
main advantages and characteristics of the design
- ease of installation;
- excellent acoustics;
- installation is done in all temperature conditions;
- use as intermediate floors and the attic.
It is worth noting that on the floor decks used only noise insulation, and for floors in the bathrooms and basement insulation is used, including the waterproofing layer.
The load on the ceilings, wooden part of their own weight and additional load. Net weight comes to 230 kg per square m
Taking into account all the characteristics of the wooden ceiling beams, span length, the amount of loads, you can easily calculate the distance between the beams, but generally does not exceed 1 m.
choosing beams for the ceiling, it should adhere to the following parameters:
- thicknessbeams 5 cm;
- its height 15 cm;
- when laying in increments of 50 cm, using mineral wool (or other insulation (sm.Uteplenie ceiling clay - an environmentally friendly and inexpensive)) as a heat insulator.
All ceilings plank on frame-panel design of the structure, as they do not have sufficient rigidity.The base support for ceiling panels are beams, their dimensions can be found in the design of the power frame structure.
Beams for the floor are obtained, for example, made of planks, thickness not less than 60 mm, well-processed roundwood.Also used twin boards with nails 50 mm thick, but it's better to use them for the construction of boxes.
principle overlap: on the girders stuffed flooring planks under the attic.For a small country cottages (which are rare) used boarded floor, because the thermal insulation properties of such structures is important only during seasonal operation.
for filing both sides packed Floor boards (planks).On the lower face is first noise absorbing material.
a warming layer of backfill should be easy (husk, saw dust) to the board are not moved away from the beam.So look for the overlap of the ceiling of the ground floor.
upper floor is the floor of the attic.
Tip: If the ceiling is plaster, it is best to use the board and filed neshpuntovannye shingle, then grip the material better.
in buildings for permanent housing using wooden beams knurled, which ensures thermal insulation and soundproofing. Nakat made of boards (planks knocked down), going to the supporting beam.
This type of rolling perfectly cope with the weight of the insulation and give warmth to the floor beams.
Mounting ceiling wooden floors, preparation for work
Installation ceilings begins with the preparation of beams (they must be up to 20% moisture content).They need to clean from the bark and a special treat with antiseptic and fire-impregnated or buy ready-made material that passed all the technical processing.
What do I need to have available a tool:
- anchor bolts;
- hacksaw on wood;
- strong rope;
- ladder or staircase;
- liquid level and building the power cord;
Mounting supporting structure, flooring and hem
Experts recommend for installation works used glued timber, length up to 12 m. They are considered the most reliable, except they produce underindividual order, so that the construction site will disappear the possibility to file the details.So
- Installation begins with the installation of bearing bars from the edges to the center, while controlling special device compliance with the exact distance and smooth styling.
Tip: It is mandatory to check the horizontal beams, as required by their ends to align the boards need to substitute pre-tarred and covered with waterproofing mastic.
- The exterior walls of the structure specially leave the nest depth of 15-20 cm, are laid there and beams.The support of the element should be between 120-180 mm.
to be adjusted so that the distance between the beam and the wall in the niche was 2-3 cm gap.When installed in the wall, every third floor beams fixed anchors.
ends before laying wooden floors wrapped in several layers of roofing material coated with mastic asphalt and then decrease the probability of decay.The niche is filled with additional insulation (foam, mineral wool (mineral ceiling sm.Uteplenie vatoy- how to do right?)).
- The space between the beams is made of 2 layers of flooring and sound-proof and heat-insulating materials, which are stacked on the reel.The first layer is made of wooden boards (board thickness is 5 cm and width 15 cm).For these purposes
suitable hollow panel.Intermediate floors below suit sewn from the bottom of the board (chipboard or GCR).
- top of the deck (overrun) installed mineral wool boards, foam, extruded polystyrene, perlite, expanded clay.Insulation boards are laid close to each other.The attic can be covered by flooring glinopeschanoy grease (2-3 cm) for thermal insulation.
- After filling done, on top of it unwound reinforcing mesh and pour the cement screed, and it will serve as a rough floor under the floor.For attic can be nailed beams across the joists and set them stable planks.
Tip: Between the beams and joists is recommended to put pieces of hardboard or cardboard or pieces of tarred boards.
requirement to the ceiling, and ways to strengthen the wooden structure
Ceiling hardwood floors house and any other floors must meet certain requirements:
- design should have a load-bearing capacity,to withstand the rated operating load on it. The calculations necessary to calculate the bearing slab of weight and overlap a lot planned for the decoration of the ceiling, floor decks for the additional weight of people, furniture and other equipment.
- Pay attention to the rigidity of the slab, it must be designed for additional loads to avoid sagging and deformation.
- intermediate floors is very important soundproofing.Thermal insulation is recommended to be strengthened if the floor above there is generally a room or unheated room (attic).
- Hardwood floor should provide a high level of safety, including fire resistance.
How can strengthen hardwood floors
order to enhance the carrying capacity of the overlap with a large span beams, the material must be placed perpendicular to each other, even though it will significantly increase the amount of work. have to install more stuff and make cuts at the intersection, then strongly pull wire or a collar.
possible to further strengthen the beams laths of boards on each side, or increasing the cross-section girders choose thicker standard.
Features the ceiling beam type
- This rough ceiling is often used in individual housing, so if you plan to make the overlap of their own, it is best to choose beams of the ceiling.
- based load-bearing structure consists of beams, which are based in turn on the load-bearing walls of the structure.The cross section of the material depends on the width of the span, the load on the ceiling and the distance between the elements.
- when to buy stuff, a lot of attention should be paid to the quality of wood, no matter what species of trees, but it should be quality dry for 4 months.
Tip: Before you fit the material, it must be carefully checked for defects.If you find a crack or rot element in any case can not be applied.
- Raw material before laying special means is not allowed.All the elements must be precisely aligned and tested special measurements.
- When installing the material take into account all the requirements of fire safety.The minimum distance from the beam to the chimney must be at least 50 cm.
for everything on the beams rough ceiling coverings used cranial bars.They are mounted to the side faces of the beam elements, and have them nailed reel, which forms a rough ceiling covering.