- determines the shape and size of the greenhouse
- materials for the construction of the frame and cover
- Making foundation greenhouse
- Building frame and cover it
- We organize airing
- heating greenhouses
love to grow vegetables on my plot?You want to increase the harvest?In this case, you need to build a greenhouse with their hands.For the construction of such a structure is necessary to acquire some knowledge and skills.About them and tell our article.
Selecting a location for the greenhouse should be carried out taking into account the fact that it will grow and mature crop plants.So, better to stay on a flat plot of land, protected from the wind and with sufficient sunlight.
The fact is that in the winter the snow load is unevenly distributed, and for middle latitudes it is often significant.For the greenhouse is not suitable shaded place, such as near trees, buildings or fence.
For better arrangement of greenhouse spend it with water and electricity.To save on the process place the greenhouse not far from energy sources.To grow plants in the winter, you need to build a heated structure.In this case you have to make sure that on the cover of the greenhouse did not stand the snow, because otherwise it will not penetrate the sunlight.
determines the shape and size of the greenhouse
small greenhouse polycarbonate
greenhouses are very different in size, shape and materials used.However, the main difference is considered the temperature level at which they are supported.In general, such structures can be divided into 2 types:
- unheated greenhouse - it lacks a display that allows you to freeze the ground during the winter.In the spring, the soil is warmed by sunlight and helps to keep the greenhouse warm in it.So extended seasonal growth period of crops.Such structures are commonly used for the cultivation of vegetables and crops early seedling colors.
- heated greenhouse for heat-loving plants.They can maintain a certain temperature, which is most favorable for the growth of thermophilic crops.
As for the sizes and shapes of structures, then there is plenty to choose from:
- designs with a gable roof - this is an ordinary type of greenhouses, with vertical walls.
- Attached to the wall of a building structure with a gable roof - provides a great opportunity for light and air than an attached greenhouse, equipped pent roof.
- Greenhouse with pent roof is an extension to the house wall.For the best solar heating should be installed on the west or south side of the building.The wall at home in this case plays the role of the power element of the frame, thanks to it provides reliable protection from the north winds.
- trapezoidal greenhouse, having a gable roof, has a high resistance.She is warm and bright, unlike his counterpart with vertical walls.
- Teplice provides uneven heating of the polygon sides of the building.To avoid problems with overheating it is important to equip its small windows or vents.It posodeystvuet timely airing.
- Greenhouse dome adapted to gusty winds, but does not provide for the cultivation of high culture.
- Greenhouse-tunnel designed for growing vegetables that grow on the earth, not in height.It is most applicable to manufacture.
- Greenhouse by type arch allow plants to grow low.
- mini-greenhouse for the cultivation of a small number of plants, and comfortable in the presence of a small space under the landing.
materials for the construction of the frame and cover
Now the market provided an abundance of variations of materials for the installation of the framework.For example, the steel frame is covered with powder paint.This is a fairly durable material, however, is subject to corrosion, which is why it is short-lived.It is characterized by high thermal conductivity, but in exceptional cases, this is not welcome.
Galvanized profile has a low strength, but does not rust.For its production uses a thin, easily deformed steel.
It is very durable and does not rust, of course, because of the galvanizing.In addition, the frame can be made from bars processed antiseptic.
If we talk about coverage, every material that is designed for this purpose, has both pluses and minuses.For example, greenhouse film is easy to replace.It is also inexpensive, not demanding application conditions.Its shape may be arched with straight walls or traditional, in the form of an arch.The film can be left in the greenhouse for the winter, so it will serve you no more than 4 years.
in recent years have increasingly become a demand of the greenhouse polycarbonate.Polycarbonate has excellent thermal conductivity and light transmission capacity, strength.Its main advantage of the ease, low price, and the ability to operate about a dozen years.Polycarbonate sheet can bend even under the arched greenhouse.There often acceptable metal frame.However, the length of the arches and the dimensions of the walls are totally dependent on the initial size of the polycarbonate sheet.
If the coverage you prefer to choose glass or glazing, the hothouse farms should be increased, but also the internal racks.Glass has the best fiber optic, long life operation and the ability to retain heat.However, a significant disadvantage of this coating is its weighty and fragility.
Making foundation greenhouse
foundation for the greenhouse
Foundation in the construction of the greenhouse is a belt or a point on the pillars.He should certainly contribute to the uniform distribution of load throughout the structure.The base construction must be built exactly horizontally, to promote the outflow of rainwater.To protect against corrosion and rotting, set between the frame and the foundation of an additional sealing layer.It is important that the base of the greenhouse was very strong, because otherwise the wall can undergo deformation, and the foundation is destroyed.
Before laying the foundations necessary to carry out the greenhouse construction calculation the depth of soil freezing.Dig a trench under the foundation of a special, which is then to be filled with sand and compacted.The height of the filling should not exceed 20 cm below the ground surface.Around the trench must be made formwork, towering above the ground about 20 cm. Along the perimeter lay into formwork reinforcement of metal, and then pour the concrete.Such simple manipulations will help to make a lasting reinforced concrete belt under the greenhouse.
Building frame and cover it
Sturdy frame construction protects your harvest from the wind and rainy days.Standard type greenhouses usually has a size of 6 × 3 m. After everything and pour the base you can start assembling the wooden frame.Strengthen the support walls on the foundation.Then on top of each support girder mounted horizontally.From the side of the north doorway, set having a size of 2 × 0,7 m.
If the coverage you choose a film, after installation is complete skeleton pull it.Use for that purpose whole pieces of the film coating.Secure film wooden slats which are attached to the supports.
If you choose a profile, then it is usually just need to twist for a given advance instructions to the greenhouse scheme.On the other hand, you can use a profile for the realization of its own design framework.
We organize airing
greenhouse ventilation system
Eddy airing a series of vents, which are located along the entire roof of the greenhouse.This method is most effective airs a greenhouse, without damaging the heat-loving plants.
current greenhouse, which is used when installing the vortex method should be coated polycarbonate, aided by the vents that have leverage.The top position of the valves allows the carrying out excess moisture with hot air.This prevents the formation of steam condensate.In addition, throughout the greenhouse uniformly maintained the same temperature.No matter what design you choose, the success of the work will depend largely on the chosen place for it.
If the construction is made so that protects the soil, then under the influence of sunlight produced greenhouse effect.Because of the rapid rise of the air in the greenhouse will stagnate, which will provoke the multiplication of pests and diseases.However, the climate can be controlled using a ventilation system that provides a stream of fresh air.The operation of the ventilation system must be combined with the work of heated and shading devices.Airing the greenhouse, you posodeystvuete hardening as a vegetable and fruit crops.Such activities beneficial to the seedlings grown for planting in open ground.2 weeks before planting seedlings should be ventilated greenhouse virtually around the clock.
to retain heat in the greenhouse can not allow the ingress of gusty winds and drafts.If your building has a small size, it will be enough to build all on one pane on each side of the roof.In general, for every 2 m length of the greenhouse should be at least two panes.To speed up the air and cooling is important to establish in the framework side vents, which are located slightly above the soil surface.They can be equipped with blinds or how to do the usual way.But this type of ventilation is inappropriate if the construction is planned cultivation of plants brought from the tropics.Because of the strong air currents that are windy days, tropical flowers may suffer.
So, you have already acquired some knowledge, it remains only to apply them in your life!Of course, everything depends on the financial situation, namely, the choice of materials for the frame, foundation and cover.However, the more reliable will be your building, the more years you serve it!Therefore it is necessary to count, it would be more cost-effective - unreliable plastic greenhouse or building a powerful foundation ventilation and polycarbonate cover?The answer seems obvious!
If you have built a decent design with the foundation and covered it with glazed glass or polycarbonate, organized a high-quality ventilation air, you can take care of the heating of greenhouses.It's allow you to grow vegetables, beloved family members, even in the winter period.So how can you organize the heating?Today we look at three ways, namely, gas, wood and electric heating.
If you want to heat the building with gas, then we can make a local heating, but the easiest way - to use a gas convector.But first you need to take care of the presence of gas in the building.These aggregates equip special thermostat that eliminates the need to regulate the burners.Burns the particles will be removed from the greenhouse room on the street using a coaxial core tube.If the size of your greenhouse is very large, it is more appropriate to use the gas boiler air heating.Here, the heat exchanger is cleaned by special fan and warm air around the perimeter of the greenhouse bred aluminum sleeves.Construction of small-sized boiler can warm air heating without air distribution.Just keep in mind that the coaxial tube boiler with a closed burner and convectors, you must pass through walls made of non-combustible materials.
most affordable source of energy and heat are still firewood.The simplest solution - stove, however, it is very uneconomical.A more reasonable solution - buleryan representing the gasifier.Around the firebox are pipes that provide mixing of air streams in the room.It is characterized by high efficiency and a rare wood laying.Even with the severe frosts will be enough to carry the wood load of 2 times a day.The mere structure of this furnace can effectively agitate the air.
Electric heating greenhouses
Electric heating with minimal operating costs to create a warm climate with little frost.For example, you can use household inverter air conditioner.Now produced a model for transfer of five kilowatts of heat from the street in a greenhouse for each kilowatt of power dissipated.However, the lower the temperature, the less effective the work of the unit.If you live in a climate zone where winter temperatures drop below -25˚S, it is best to heat the greenhouse in any other way.In this case, are more versatile infrared panels to heat the air, because they are more economical than heaters and Teplopushki.The fact that the infrared heating panels simulate natural sunlight.They do not heat the air, and transfer heat to the plants and soil.As a result, the air at the roof level remains cooler than the temperature of the soil and under.This is the essence of the benefits, because the higher the heat loss, the greater the temperature difference between the room from the street.
you have already constructed a greenhouse?What difficulties did you have?Or maybe you're settled in heating or ventilation in the greenhouse?What difficulties have you faced and what helped you cope with them?Write to us with your comments, your experience will be very useful to us!We value each person's saying!
This video about the proper installation of polycarbonate greenhouses.