- foundation under the wall
- Foundation dimensions, its reinforcement and device
construction of his house - it is a responsible and important activity, which at the end can surpriseits owner excellent design and a beautiful facade.However, all this idyll can be broken, if the house will shrink.
Yes, the consequences of incorrect installation of the foundation can be extremely unpleasant.
foundation under the wall
worth mentioning are two main types of foundations that are used in the device home.It:
- monolithic device used for its pit;
- belt, which sees a separate load-bearing walls.
latter type is done in tranches.Accordingly, it takes less power, resources
necessary to have a model project at home.It can be ordered in any project institute, an architect, or do it yourself (when there is a skills building).If the strength is not enough for such a project - at least in the mind can estimate what size will have a building, how many floors, and then draw a plan on a piece of the foundation with an indication of its size and the thickness of the trenches.
layout for the foundation
To properly make the foundation, it should be noted at the construction site the exact location of the building, and to establish beacons, which are stretched between the transverse and longitudinal scaffold (or are not strong stretchnylon filament) denoting the axis of the building.Such beacons are usually made at a distance from the foundation of the future, using two wooden slats, arranged vertically, which are fastened across the other board.Her top must coincide with the grade mark, which is specified in the project.Then, using a laser level, there is, where it will intersect with the rail axis of the building, to screw twisted, tied fishing line and doing similar other party.So, by analogy made all axes.Correct installation checked by a laser level and the distance on the parallel sides must be equal between the axles.
Further refine according to the project, whether the center of the trench axis, or one of its sides, and how wide it will be.This space is evenly sprinkled with a thin layer of sand, so that the driver of the excavator could see where to dig.In some cases, when there is no opportunity for the technology to stop by the construction site, you need to dig a trench by hand.For this have turn wield a shovel and a crowbar.
dimensions of the foundation, its reinforcement and device
depth of the trench depends on the thickness of the walls, the material from which they will be ground and the number of floors of the future building.The lower the density of the soil, thicker walls, dense material above the house, the greater and greater depth to dig trenches.It should be remembered that extra margin of safety does not prevent, but may hurt the pocket and take time and effort.When the trenches are ready, you need to wait for a month until it sits down the ground.
inside the trench is the foundation cushion.If one, for example, has a width of 40-50 cm, the airbag is more than 20 cm on each side, that is, the overall width is 80-90 cm. For this purpose, when the strip foundation trench ready shovel cut away a layer of soil at the basedepth of 20 cm and somewhere the same height.Then, pour a layer of sand to about 50 mm, which will be the bottom of the basement waterproofing.The pillow keeps reinforcing grid (if necessary 2, linking them together as a frame).It will make the foundation stronger bending.
foundation itself can be made of different materials.For example, suitable:
- foundation blocks;
- concrete mix;
- any lasting filler, mixed with a solution of (small buildings).
best to use the foundation blocks, because they are larger.However, there is one major drawback - the need for installation of the crane, and its work should be combined with the delivery of construction materials to the site.If this is not done, the crane will have to hire twice to unload, and then laying the trenches blocks.
blocks stacked on a layer of cement-sand mortar with a thickness of about a centimeter or more, they also are sealed seams.The blocks should be stacked with a number of ligation as with masonry walls, otherwise there will provide the necessary strength.Blocks need to fluff bitumen - a convenient thing to do, yet laid a row of blocks, instead of two or three.When completed construction of the foundation grew, it can be filled on the sides of the earth, tamping it uniformly (manually or "paw").
also to protect from moisture strip foundation is blind area, not less than 1 meter in width.Pre-prepared area of clay 10 cm thick, which must be compacted.It should have a slope from the house, which will provide drainage of precipitation and the foundation will be fed with moisture.
This video describes the basic mistakes that allowed the manufacture of strip foundation amateurs.